Thursday, June 30, 2011
June 30, 350 Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, was defeated and killed in Rome by troops of the usurper Magnentius. 1422 Battle of Arbedo between the duke of Milan and the Swiss cantons.1520 The Spaniards were expelled from Tenochtitlan. 1559 King Henry II of France (husband of Catherine de' Medici) was seriously injured in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery.
Wednesday, June 29, 2011
June 29, 64 (traditional date and story) Saint Paul (the apostle of Jesus Christ) one of the greatest preachers, writers, and organizers of the early Christian church was executed in the gardens of Nero at the foot of Vatican Hill. 1194 Sverre was crowned King of Norway. 1613 The Globe Theatre in London, England burned to the ground when a theatrical canon was fired during the play All Is True. 1644 Charles I of England defeated a Parliamentarian detachment at the Battle of Cropredy Bridge, the last battle won by an English King on English soil.
Tuesday, June 28, 2011
June 28, 1098 Fighters of the First Crusade defeated Kerbogha of Mosul (the original city stood on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank; modern day northern Iraq). 1389 The Ottomans defeated the Serbian army in the bloody Battle of Kosovo, opening the way for the Ottoman conquest of Southeastern Europe. 1461 Edward IV was crowned King of England.1491 King Henry VIII of England was born. 1519 Charles V was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Monday, June 27, 2011
June 27 1358 The maritime Republic of Dubrovnik (modern Croatia) was founded. 1462 King Louis XII of France was born. Louis was very popular with the people of France and became known as "the Father of the People" for his efforts to protect his subjects from oppression and his ability to finance his wars without heavy taxation. Though he kept France free of civil war, he became involved in detrimental hostilities with Italy.
Sunday, June 26, 2011
June 26, 221 Roman Emperor Elagabalus adopted his cousin Alexander Severus as his heir and received the title of Caesar. 363 Emperor Julian, the last Roman emperor to oppose Christianity, died in Mesopotamia at age 32, while fighting the Persians. General Jovian was proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield. 684 Pope St. Benedict consecrated. The consecration of Benedict was delayed nearly a year until Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV could approve his election. 1284 the legendary Pied Piper led 130 children out of Hamelin, Germany. 1409 Western Schism: the Roman Catholic church was led into a double schism as Petros Philargos was crowned Pope Alexander V after the Council of Pisa, joining Pope Gregory XII in Rome and Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. 1483 Richard III was crowned king of England after declaring his nephews Edward and Richard illegitimate.
Saturday, June 25, 2011
June 25, 253 Pope Cornelius died at Centumcellae where he was exiled during the Christian persecution under Trebonianus Gallus Augustus. 524 The Franks defeated the Burgundians in the Battle of Vézeronce. 841 In the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye, forces led by Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated the armies of Lothair I of Italy and Pepin II of Aquitaine.
Friday, June 24, 2011
June 24, 109 The Aqua Traiana was inaugurated by emperor Trajan, the aqueduct channeled water from Lake Bracciano, 40 kilometers (25 miles) north-west of Rome. 217Hannibal defeated the Romans at Lago di Trasimeno in the Second Punic War. 451 Attila the Hun raised his siege of Orleans, France in a prelude to his being pushed out of France by a combined army of Romans and barbarians. 1314 First War of Scottish Independence: the Battle of Bannockburn concluded with a decisive victory of the Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce, though England did not recognize Scottish independence until 1328 with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton. 1340 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Sluys – The French fleet was almost destroyed by the English Fleet commanded in person by King Edward III. 1441 King Henry VI of England founded Eton College. 1497 John Cabot landed in North America at Newfoundland leading the first European exploration of the region since the Vikings. 1497 Cornish rebels Michael An Gof and Thomas Flamank were executed at Tyburn, London. 1509 Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were crowned King and Queen of England. 1520: Mass at Field of Cloth of Gold. Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France met between Guînes and Ardres near Calais to discuss an alliance. Since the nearby castles were in decay, temporary pavilions of such splendor were erected that the entire meeting area was called a "Cloth of Gold." At the end of more than a fortnight of cordial negotiations and entertainment, mass was said on Sunday, June 24and the kings parted. Political results of the meeting were negligible.
Thursday, June 23, 2011
June 23, 79 Titus succeeded his father Vespasian as the tenth Roman Emperor. 1314 The Battle of Bannockburn. This significant battle helped the Scots regain independence from England and secured the throne of Scotland for Robert the Bruce. 1509 Henry VIII of England crowned. 1532 Henry VIII and François I signed a secret treaty against Emperor Charles V.
Wednesday, June 22, 2011
June 22, 217 BC – Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt defeated Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. 168 BC Battle of Pydna: Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeated and captured Macedonian King Perseus ending the Third Macedonian War. 1593 Battle of Sisak: Allied Christian troops defeated the Turks. 1633 The Holy Office in Rome forced Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe.
Tuesday, June 21, 2011
June 21, 217 BC The Romans, led by Gaius Flaminius, were ambushed and defeated by Hannibal at the Battle of Lake Trasimene. 524 Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeated the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. 1327 King Edward III of England died.
1527 Niccolo Machiavelli died.
1527 Niccolo Machiavelli died.
Monday, June 20, 2011
June 20, 404 the first Cathedral of Santa Sophia in Constantinople was burned to the ground by rioters. 451 Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius' battled Attila the Hun. After the battle, which was inconclusive, but since Attila retreated,the Romans claimed victory. 1214 The University of Oxford received its charter. 1631 The sack of Baltimore: the Irish village of Baltimore was attacked by Algerian pirates. 1652 Tarhoncu Ahmet Paşa appointed grand vezir of the Ottoman Empire, served until 21 March 1653. 1685 Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth declared himself King of England at Bridgwater.
Sunday, June 19, 2011
June 19, 1098 Antioch fell to the crusaders.The long siege and capture of Antioch in the First Crusade delayed the crusaders' arrival in Jerusalem for more than a year. Even after its fall it took several months before the last leg of the journey could begin. 1179 The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Earl Erling Skakke was killed, and the battle changed the tide of the civil wars. 1269 King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver. 1306 Wars for Scottish Independence: The Earl of Pembroke's army defeated Robert Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.
Saturday, June 18, 2011
June 18, 1155 Frederick Barbarossa was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1178 Five Canterbury monks saw what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed. It is believed that the current oscillations of the Moon's distance from the Earth (on the order of metres) are a result of this collision. 1264 The Parliament of Ireland met at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitively known meeting of this Irish legislature. 1429 French forces under the leadership of Joan of Arc defeated the main English army under sir John Fastolf at the Battle of Patay. This turned the tide of the Hundred Years' War.
Friday, June 17, 2011
June 17, 1194 Richard I (the Lionheart) was crowned again. After having been held captive in Australia for two years by Emperor Henry VI, Richard felt it was necessary to demonstrate his sovereignty over England,and had a second coronation. Less than one month later, he left the country for Normandy, never to return. 1239 Edward I was born. 1497 Cornish Rebellion - Battle of Deptford Bridge – forces under King Henry VII defeated troops led by Michael An Gof.
Thursday, June 16, 2011
Wednesday, June 15, 2011
June 15,763 BC Assyrians recorded a solar eclipse that was later used to fix the chronology of Mesopotamian history. 923 Battle of Soissons: King Robert I of France was killed and King Charles the Simple was arrested by the supporters of Duke Rudolph of Burgundy 1094, El Cid, the great Spanish national hero, captured Valencia from the Moors. 1184 King Magnus V of Norway was killed at the Battle of Fimreite. 1215 King John of England put his seal to the Magna Carta. 1246 With the death of Duke Frederick II, the Babenberg dynasty ended in Austria. 1330 Edward, the Black Prince was born.1381 The Peasants' Revolt against a poll tax was dispersed at Smithfield after its leader Wat Tyler was killed. 1389 Battle of Kosovo: The Ottoman Empire defeated Serbs and Bosnians. 1520 Pope Leo X threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther in papal bull Exsurge Domine.
Tuesday, June 14, 2011
June 14,1287 Kublai Khan defeated the force of Nayan and other traditionalist Borjigin princes in East Mongolia and Manchuria.1381 Richard II of England met leaders of Peasants' Revolt on Blackheath. The Tower of London was stormed by rebels who entered without resistance.
Monday, June 13, 2011
June 13, 323 BC Alexander the Great died of a fever in Babylon at age 33. 37 AD Gnaeus Julius Agricola was born. He was a Roman general noted for conquering all of England and part of Scotland from AD 77-84. 49 AD Pope Leo I, The Great, presented his Tome, affirming the reality of the two natures of Christ human and divine to Flavian, the Bishop of Constantinople. 313 The 'Edict of Milan' was proclaimed, ending the persecution of Christians across the Roman empire. 823 Charles I (the Bald) was born. He was the Grandson of Charlemagne who with his two half brothers divided Charlemagne's empire into three parts, with Charles becoming the first king of France in AD 843-877. 1249 Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots. 1373Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. 1525 Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns. 1625 King Charles I married Henrietta Maria of France, Princess of France.
Friday, June 10, 2011
June 11,1184 BC Trojan War: Troy was sacked and burned, according to calculations by Eratosthenes. 173 Marcomannic Wars: The Roman army in Moravia was encircled by the Quadi, who had broken the peace treaty (171). In a violent thunderstorm emperor Marcus Aurelius defeated and subdued them in the so-called "miracle of the rain". 1345 The megas doux Alexios Apokaukos, chief minister of the Byzantine Empire, was lynched by political prisoners. 1429 Hundred Years' War: start of the Battle of Jargeau. 1488 Rebels defeated and deposed James III of Scotland at the Battle of Sauchieburn, making his son, James, king. 1509 Henry VIII of England married Catherine of Aragon.
June 12, 1381 Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrived at Blackheath. 1418 An insurrection delivered Paris to the Burgundians. 1429 Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc led the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau.
June 10, 1190 Third Crusade: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (67) drowned in the river Saleph while leading an army to Jerusalem. 1258 Provisions of Oxford issued. King Henry III of England, bankrupted by a venture in Sicily, summoned Parliament in the hopes of gaining a grant of funds. In return, he agreed to abide by a reform program devised by a royal commission; its report, considered England's first written constitution, is known as the Provisions of Oxford. 1539 Council of Trent: Paul III sent out letters to his bishops, delaying the Council due to war and the difficulty bishops had traveling to Venice.
Thursday, June 9, 2011
June 9, 411 BC – Coup in Athens succeeded, forming a short-lived oligarchy. 53 Roman Emperor Nero married Claudia Octavia. 62 Claudia Octavia was executed. 68 Roman Emperor Nero committed suicide, after quoting Homer's Iliad, ending the Julian-Claudian imperial dynasty. 721 Odo of Aquitaine defeated the Moors in the Battle of Toulouse. 1310 Duccio's Maestà Altarpiece, a seminal artwork of the early Italian Renaissance, was unveiled and installed in the Siena Cathedral in Siena, Italy.
Wednesday, June 8, 2011
June 8, 68 Nero awoke to find that his guards had fled and that he was a wanted man. He fled Rome and committed suicide the next day. The Roman Senate proclaimed Galba as emperor. 218 Battle of Antioch: Elagabalus with support of the Syrian legions defeated the forces of emperor Macrinus. He fled, but was captured near Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia.793 Vikings raid the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, and is commonly accepted as the beginning of the Scandinavian invasion of England. 1191, Richard the Lion-Hearted of England arrived at the port of Acre in the Holy Land during the third Crusade. He captured Acre, but could not recapture Jerusalem from the Turks. 1376 Edward, the Black Prince died. 1405 Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, were executed in York on Henry IV's orders.
Tuesday, June 7, 2011
June 7, 1099 The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem began.In this climax of the First Crusade, the Christian army encamped before the city and began the siege that was to result in the capture of the city more than a month later. 1420 Troops of the Republic of Venice captured Udine, ending the independence of the Patriarchal State of Friuli. 1329 Robert the Bruce died. 1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas which divided the New World between the two countries.
Monday, June 6, 2011
June 6, 1513 Italian Wars: Battle of Novara. Swiss troops defeated the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza was restored. 1523 Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden, marking the end of the Kalmar Union, which had united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland,and Orkney),and Sweden.
Sunday, June 5, 2011
June 5, 70 Titus and his Roman legions breached the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem. 1257 Kraków, Poland received city rights. 1294 Saint Celestine V was elected Roman Catholic pope. He was unhappy with the office and abdicated before the year was out. 1798 The Battle of New Ross: The attempt to spread United Irish Rebellion into Munster was defeated.
Saturday, June 4, 2011
Friday, June 3, 2011
June 3, 350 Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaimed himself Roman Emperor, entering Rome at the head of a group of gladiators. 1098 First Crusade: Antioch fell to the crusaders after an eight-month siege. 1162 Thomas À Becket consecrated Archbishop. When Henry II appointed his old friend to this powerful post, he thought Becket would continue to support him in the ongoing struggle of state vs. church. Becket would soon prove otherwise.
Thursday, June 2, 2011
June 2,455 Rome was captured and brutally sacked by Geiseric the Vandal. 575 Benedict I was confirmed as pope. 597 Saxon King Ethelbert was converted to Christianity and baptized by St. Augustine of Canterbury. 1098 First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ended as Crusader forces took the city. The second siege began on June 7. 1420 Henry V married Catherine of Valois.
Wednesday, June 1, 2011
June 1, 193 Roman Emperor Didius Julianus was assassinated. 987 Hugh Capet was elected King of France. 1204 King Philip Augustus of France conquered Rouen. 1215 Beijing, then under the control of the Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, was captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, ending the Battle of Beijing. 1252 Alfonso X was elected King of Castile and León. 1298 residents of Riga and Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Livonian Order in the Battle of Turaida. 1495 Friar John Cor (Lindores Abbey, Scotland) recorded the first known batch of scotch whisky. 1533 Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England.